X-ray monochromators, a type of bent single crystal component, efficiently focus x-ray emissions. Monochromators are used in a variety of applications–including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for elemental surface analysis, synchrotron beamline focusing, and plasma diagnostics in controlled nuclear fusion research facilities.

Inrad Optics leverages a wide range of capabilities in fabricating and testing single crystal x-ray optics; our implementation of exacting metrology and quality control techniques coupled with our proprietary optical contacting methods allow us to provide excellent quality bent crystal x-ray optics to the x-ray spectroscopy market, thus enabling improvements in measurement resolution.

  • Doubly bent crystals to curvatures including toroidal, ellipsoidal, aspheric, and spherical shapes
  • Interferometrically verified surface profiles with tightly controlled slope error and radii accuracy
  • Proprietary polishing techniques to minimize subsurface damage and crystal plane deformation
  • Precise crystal orientation using x-ray diffractometers with measurement sensitivity of 1 arcsecond
  • X-ray topographic inspection for verified crystal quality and batch-to-batch consistency
  • Vacuum-compatible assemblies composed of non-outgassing materials
  • Geometry and precision suitable for achieving small spot sizes

X-Ray Monochromators

Our x-ray monochromator expertise builds on a deep scientific understanding of crystalline materials. Inrad Optics produces flat and bent x-ray crystals to custom specifications, most commonly using quartz, silicon, or germanium single crystals. We are continuously working to meet the changing needs of our bent crystal x-ray optics customers and to that end, we have engaged in development efforts to thin and polish challenging materials at different crystallographic planes to help our customers achieve higher reflectivities and energy resolutions. Recent projects have included orientation, polishing, and bending of lithium niobate, indium arsenide, and indium antimonide.

In 2016, Inrad Optics was awarded phase I SBIR funding to grow high quality acid phthalate crystals (e.g. KAP and RbAP) and develop optimal thinning and bending techniques. Acid phthalate crystals are of interest due to their large 2d spacings which are suitable for soft x-rays.


Diffraction Crystals Quartz, Silicon, Germanium, Lithium Niobate, InSb, KAP, and RbAP
Substrate Materials Glass or Metal
Assembly Dimensions Diameters up to 250 mm
Assembly Features Notches, grooves, and inserts for easy integration and alignment
Tiled crystals for large area coverage
Orientation Accuracy Absolute to ± 10 arcsec ; Relative to ± 2 arcsec
Slope Error To λ/4 per inch @ 633 nm
Radius Tolerance Accurate to within 1%, Rv/Rh ratio controlled for toroids

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